Performance appraisal can be part of a cultural change effort, but there are a lot of other things that will provide greater leverage (for good or ill) in changing culture.
That being said, they way you can use your performance appraisal system to drive behavior change is straight-forward. Maybe not easy, but straight-forward.
1. Define as clearly as you can what behavior you want. What does it look like, what sort of measurable, or at least observable, results does it have?
2. What, specifically, does that behavior look like in each role? What definable, measurable, observable outcomes does it produce for that position?
3. How often do you expect those outcomes to be seen in that position? Is this an everyday expectation for minimal success? Is it a once in a while, extra-ordinary observation?
4. What, specifically, are the impacts of the behaviors on the person in that position? If they don't do it is it cause for disciplinary action? If they do it, is it cause for disciplinary action? Is a specific number expected each appraisal period, and more is cause for upgrading, and less is cause for downgrading their appraisal? How much? Is it something that is not expected, but cause for upgrading their appraisal if observed?
As an analogy, think of a basketball team. One of the behaviors they want to encourage is assisting other members of the team in scoring. The appraisal system might state that each player should have x number of assists per 20 minutes of play time. Or on a football team, the running back has a minimum number of touchdowns expected per game, but the linemen get a bonus every time they make a touchdown.
If you clearly define what "winning" looks like for your people, clearly link observable, measurable behavioral outcomes to that definition of winning, and then your appraisal is primarily based on the review of unambiguous outcomes, you will be getting the maximum leverage from your appraisal system whether you are trying to drive cultural change, business improvement, employee development, or anything else.